Nursing Research And Evidence Based Practice With Picot Question

Today is week 1 day 2.  I need discussion question by Weds.  The picot question in this discussion question will be the question for the paper.  So I need discussion question complete and the 3 part paper.

Discussion: Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice

In your practice as a nurse, you may use procedures and methods that did not necessarily originate in evidence, but instead were derived from informal and unwritten conventions, traditions, and observations. While these techniques may have merit, practices are constantly being updated and contradicted by information from scholarly research studies and professional guidelines. This new information serves as “evidence” for revising practices to improve outcomes across health care.

Based on this evidence, you can formulate a question. In this Discussion, you consider the use of evidence-based practice in your own organization and formulate a question that you will need to answer for your portfolio project. This is called a PICOT question. You will also investigate strategies for overcoming barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP).

To prepare:                                                         

  • Consider a recent clinical experience in which you were providing care for a patient.
  • Determine the extent to which the care that you provided was based on evidence and research findings or supported only by your organization’s standard procedures. How do you know if the tasks were based on research?
  • What questions have you thought about in a particular area of care such as a procedure or policy?
  • Review Chapter 2, pages 31–34 on “Asking Well worded Clinical Questions” in Polit & Beck and consult the resource from the Walden Student Center for Success: Clinical Question Anatomy & examples of PICOT questions (found in this week’s Learning Resources). Formulate your background questions and PICOT question.
  • Reflect on the barriers that might inhibit the implementation of evidence-based practice in your clinical environment.
  • Review the article “Adopting Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Decision Making” in this week’s Learning Resources. Select one of the barriers described that is evident in your organization and formulate a plan for overcoming this barrier.

By Day 3

Post an evaluation of the use, or lack thereof, of EBP in a recent clinical experience. Identify which aspects of the care delivered, if any, were based on evidence and provide your rationale. List your background questions and PICOT question about this nursing topic. Critique how the policies, procedures, and culture in your organization may hinder or support the adoption of evidence-based practices. Identify the barrier you selected from the article and explain how this barrier could be overcome within your organization.


Course Project: Part 1—Identifying a Researchable Problem

One of the most challenging aspects of EBP is to actually identify the answerable question.

—Karen Sue Davies

Formulating a question that targets the goal of your research is a challenging but essential task. The question plays a crucial role in all other aspects of the research, including the determination of the research design and theoretical perspective to be applied, which data will be collected, and which tools will be used for analysis. It is therefore essential to take the time to ensure that the research question addresses what you actually want to study. Doing so will increase your likelihood of obtaining meaningful results.

In this first component of the Course Project, you formulate questions to address a particular nursing issue or problem. You use the PICOT model—patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome—outlined in the Learning Resources to design your questions.

To prepare:

  • Review the article, “Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks,” found in the Learning Resources for this week. Focus on the PICOT model for guiding the development of research questions.
  • Review the section beginning on page 75 of the course text, titled, “Developing and Refining Research Problems” in the course text, which focuses on analyzing the feasibility of a research problem.
  • Reflect on an issue or problem that you have noticed in your nursing practice. Consider the significance of this issue or problem.
  • Generate at least five questions that relate to the issue which you have identified. Use the criteria in your course text to select one question that would be most appropriate in terms of significance, feasibility, and interest. Be prepared to explain your rationale.
  • Formulate a preliminary PICO question—one that is answerable—based on your analysis. What are the PICO variables (patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome) for this question?

Note: Not all of these variables may be appropriate to every question. Be sure to analyze which are and are not relevant to your specific question.

  • Using the PICOT variables that you determined for your question, develop a list of at least 10 keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search to investigate current research pertaining to the question.

To complete:

Write a 3- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

  • A summary of your area of interest, an identification of the problem that you have selected, and an explanation of the significance of this problem for nursing practice
  • The 5 questions you have generated and a description of how you analyzed them for feasibility
  • Your preliminary PICOT question and a description of each PICOT variable relevant to your question
  • At least 10 possible keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search for your PICOT question and a rationale for your selections

By Day 7

Submit your Project. It will also be a component of your Portfolio Assignment for this course, which is due by Day 7 of Week 10.


Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 75–80. Retrieved from

2nd part

Course Project: Part 2—Literature Review

This is a continuation of the Course Project presented in Week 2. Before you begin, review the Course Project Overview document located in the Week 2 Resources area.

The literature review is a critical piece in the research process because it helps a researcher determine what is currently known about a topic and identify gaps or further questions. Conducting a thorough literature review can be a time-consuming process, but the effort helps establish the foundation for everything that will follow. For this part of your Course Project, you will conduct a brief literature review to find information on the question you developed in Week 2. This will provide you with experience in searching databases and identifying applicable resources.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in Chapter 5 of the course text, focusing on the steps for conducting a literature review and for compiling your findings.
  • Using the question you selected in your Week 2 Project (Part 1 of the Course Project), locate 5 or more full-text research articles that are relevant to your PICOT question. Include at least 1 systematic review and 1 integrative review if possible. Use the search tools and techniques mentioned in your readings this week to enhance the comprehensiveness and objectivity of your review. You may gather these articles from any appropriate source, but make sure at least 3 of these articles are available as full-text versions through Walden Library’s databases.
  • Read through the articles carefully. Eliminate studies that are not appropriate and add others to your list as needed. Although you may include more, you are expected to include a minimum of five articles. Complete a literature review summary table using the Literature Review Summary Table Template located in this week’s Learning Resources.
  • Prepare to summarize and synthesize the literature using the information on writing a literature review found in Chapter 5 of the course text.

To complete:

Write a 3- to 4-page literature review that includes the following:

  • A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question that you developed
    • Point out inconsistencies and contradictions in the literature and offer possible explanations for inconsistencies.
  • Preliminary conclusions on whether the evidence provides strong support for a change in practice or whether further research is needed to adequately address your inquiry
  • Your literature review summary table with all references formatted in correct APA style

Note: Certain aspects of conducting a standard review of literature have not yet been covered in this course. Therefore, while you are invited to critically examine any aspect of the studies (e.g., a study’s design, appropriateness of the theoretic framework, data sampling methods), your conclusion should be considered preliminary. Bear in mind that five studies are typically not enough to reflect the full range of knowledge on a particular question and you are not expected to be familiar enough with research methodology to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of the studies.

By Day 7 of Week 5

This part of the Course Project is due. It will also be a component in your Portfolio Assignment in this course, which is due by Day 7 of Week 10.

3rd part

Course Project: Part 3—Translating Evidence Into Practice

In Part 3 of the Course Project, you consider how the evidence you gathered during Part 2 can be translated into nursing practice.

Now that you have located available research on your PICOT question, you will examine what the research indicates about nursing practices. Connecting research evidence and findings to actual decisions and tasks that nurses complete in their daily practice is essentially what evidence-based practice is all about. This final component of the Course Project asks you to translate the evidence and data from your literature review into authentic practices that can be adopted to improve health care outcomes. In addition, you will also consider possible methods and strategies for disseminating evidence-based practices to your colleagues and to the broader health care field.

To prepare:

  • Consider Parts 1 and 2 of your Course Project. How does the research address your PICOT question?
  • With your PICOT question in mind, identify at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in two or more of the articles from your literature review. Consider what the evidence indicates about how this practice contributes to better outcomes.
  • Explore possible consequences of failing to adopt the evidence-based practice that you identified.
  • Consider how you would disseminate information about this evidence-based practice throughout your organization or practice setting. How would you communicate the importance of the practice?

To complete:

In a 3- to 4-page paper:

  • Restate your PICOT question and its significance to nursing practice.
  • Summarize the findings from the articles you selected for your literature review. Describe at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in the articles. Justify your response with specific references to at least 2 of the articles.
  • Explain how the evidence-based practice that you identified contributes to better outcomes. In addition, identify potential negative outcomes that could result from failing to use the evidence-based practice.
  • Outline the strategy for disseminating the evidence-based practice that you identified throughout your practice setting. Explain how you would communicate the importance of the practice to your colleagues. Describe how you would move from disseminating the information to implementing the evidence-based practice within your organization. How would you address concerns and opposition to the change in practice?

By Day 7 of Week 10

This part of the Course Project is due. It should be combined with the other two components of the Course Project and turned in as your Portfolio Assignment for this course.

Note: In addition, include a 1-page summary of your project.

For this final iteration, you will need to:

  • Submit your paper to Grammarly and SafeAssign through the Walden Writing Center. Based on the Grammarly and SafeAssign reports, revise your paper as necessary.
  • Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The School of Nursing Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available from the Walden University website found in this week’s Learning Resources). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Biology Lab Experiment Report

  • 10 pages report about this experiment 



Does protein level affect the metabolic rate of zebrafish?


dietary ingredients, nutrients as well as anti-nutritional factors are important factors that affect its growth and development.  However, there is lack of proper nutritional control due to absence of standardized reference diet (Boyle 5354).  Moreover, many epidemiological studies indicate that several prenatal and peri-natal dies are important in the growth and development of Zebra fish (Danio rerio) (Siccardi et al 23).   In order to provide standardized dietary framework, there is need for the provision of specific dietary and nutritional standard to improve the growth and development of Zebra fish (Danio rerio).  Thus, the need for investigating the growth and metabolic rate of Zebra fish (Danio rerio) when fed with different commercial diets.


How can protein affect the metabolic rate?

Does the oxygen level in the water indicate the metabolic rate?



Zebra fish (Danio rerio) is a small shoaling fish and it belongs to the minnow family of Cyprinadae and order cypriniformes. Due to its unique characteristics, the Zebra fish (Danio rerio) is mostly used as a vertebrae model organism in scientific research. It has regenerative qualities and has been modified by various researchers to produce several transgenic strains. It has been used in various medical research studies and findings including those dealing with the prevention of cancer, cardio-vascular conditions as well as investigation of the immune systems and other drug discovery systems

Furthermore, due to their omnivores qualities, they are have been used in environmental monitoring activities in order to prevent water pollution by estrogen (Howard 1173).   Based on previous literatures and research studies investigating their growth and metabolic rate, it is evident that the Zebra fish (Danio rerio) are imperative in studying the development, genetics as well as the human disease conditions (Williams et al 153).


HYPOTHESES: Protein will increase the metabolic rate.

GOALS: To test the metabolic rate after using 6 different protein level in commercial diet by measuring the oxygen level



I will use 6 commercial diet with different level of protein and the same level of fat and fibers

Group 1

Name protein Fat Fiber
Nutrafin Max Flake Food 44% 5% 2%
Tetra Pond Koi Vibrance 31% 5% 2%


Group 2

Name Protein Fat Fiber
TetraMin Tropical Flakes 38% 6% 6%
HBH Algae Grazers 28% 6% 6%


Name Protein Fat Fiber
New Life Spectrum Premium 48% 5% 4%
Dainichi Veggie Deluxe 28% 5% 4%


I will use 3 tanks each tank have 2 male Zebra Fish. (Find the different between male and female metabolic rate) (Why did I choose male??)






I will measure the oxygen level by using

Salifert Oxygen Test Kit  

Quick and accurate test for dissolved oxygen content. Proper oxygen concentration is vital for aquarium inhabitants and the overall health of the aquarium environment. The Salifert Oxygen Profi Test allows extremely fast, professional measurement of dissolved oxygen. Maintaining proper oxygen levels is especially important in marine aquariums because of the low solubility of oxygen in saltwater. The Salifert Oxygen Test Kit is a “must-have” test kit for hobbyists with sophisticated aquarium devices such as calcium reactors, CO2 systems, or ozonizers, where regular monitoring of oxygen level is crucial. 50 tests. Use for freshwater or marine aquariums.

This is mainly because when the oxygen level decrease that means Fish are using more oxygen to increase their metabolic rate. Previous research studies and findings also indicate that some of the methods used in measuring the metabolic rate of animals include the double labeled water (DLW) and heart rate methods (HRM). The best method is the DLW since it is cheaper and provides best procedures to determine the standard errors in estimating oxygen consumption. However, the heart rate method is more accurate and provides reliable calibrations. In measuring the rate of metabolic rate of Zebra fish (Danio rerio) various commercial diets

A light:dark photoperiod of 12:12 h was provided by indirect fluorescent lighting. Temperature was monitored daily using a thermometer (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA). Ammonia-nitrogen, NO2-N, and pH were monitored weekly using an aquarium pharmaceuticals test kit (Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, Chalfon, PA). Each tank contained one cylindrical plastic mesh cage (0.25 m height by 0.09 m diameter) covered with nylon mesh (Fashion Knee Hi; American Corporation, Henderson, NC). Temperature was maintained at 28°C (±0.5°C), pH ranged between 8.0 and 8.4, and ammonia-nitrogen and NO2-N remained below visual detection limits.

Identify the theoretical orientation you have selected to use.

The problem-solving model was first laid out by Helen Perlman. Her seminal 1957 book, Social Casework: A Problem-Solving Process, described the problem-solving model and the 4Ps. Since then, other scholars and practitioners have expanded the problem-solving model and problem-solving therapy. At the heart of problem-solving model and problem-solving therapy is helping clients identify the problem and the goal, generating options, evaluating the options, and then implementing the plan.

Because models are blueprints and are not necessarily theories, it is common to use a model and then identify a theory to drive the conceptualization of the client’s problem, assessment, and interventions. Take, for example, the article by Westefeld and Heckman-Stone (2003). Note how the authors use a problem-solving model as the blueprint in identifying the steps when working with clients who have experienced sexual assault. On top of the problem-solving model, the authors employed crisis theory, as this theory applies to the trauma of going through sexual assault. Observe how, starting on page 229, the authors incorporated crisis theory to their problem-solving model.

In this Final Case Assignment, using the same case study that you chose in Week 2, you will use the problem-solving model AND a theory from the host of different theoretical orientations you have used for the case study.

You will prepare a PowerPoint presentation consisting of 11 to 12 slides.

To prepare:

  • Review and focus on the case study that you chose in      Week 2. (Jake Levy Case Study)
  • Review the problem-solving model, focusing on the five      steps of the problem-solving model formulated by D’Zurilla on page 388 in      the textbook.
  • In addition, review this article listed in the Learning      Resources: Westefeld, J. S., & Heckman-Stone, C. (2003). The      integrated problem-solving model of crisis intervention: Overview and      application. The Counseling Psychologist, 31(2), 221–239.

presenting your PowerPoint presentation that addresses the following:

  • Identify the theoretical orientation you have selected      to use.
  • Describe how you would assess the problem orientation      of the client in your selected case study (i.e., how the client perceives      the problem). Remember to keep the theoretical orientation in mind      in this assessment stage.
  • Discuss the problem definition and formulation based on      the theoretical orientation you have selected.
  • Identify and describe two solutions from all the      solutions possible. Remember, some of these solutions should stem from the      theoretical orientation you are utilizing.
  • Describe how you would implement the solution. Remember      to keep the theoretical orientation in mind.
  • Describe the extent to which the client is able to      mobilize the solutions for change.
  • Discuss how you would evaluate whether the outcome is      achieved or not. Remember to keep the theoretical orientation in      mind.
  • Evaluate how well the problem-solving model can be used      for short-term treatment of this client.
  • Evaluate one merit and one limitation of using the      problem-solving model for this case.

Your 11- to 12-slide PowerPoint presentation should follow these guidelines:

  • Each slide should be written using bullet points,      meaning no long paragraphs of written text should be in the slides.
  • Include a brief narration of less than 30 seconds for      each slide (i.e., the narration takes the place of any written paragraphs,      while the bullet points provide context and cues for the audience to      follow along).

Be sure to:

  • Identify and correctly reference the case study you      have chosen.
  • Use literature to support your claims.
  • Use APA formatting and style.
  • Include the reference list on the last slide.

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