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Plant Practice Test
Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your
answer choice with an UPPER CASE letter in the space provided.
____ 1. Although there are similarities between animal and fungal digestion, there is a major difference. Identify
A. Animal digestion uses enzymes; fungal digestion does not. B. Only animals begin the digestive
process outside the body. C. Larger nutrient molecules are absorbed through the animal cell membrane
than through fungal cell membranes. D. A fungus will digest nutrient matter outside of its body.
E. Under certain conditions, fungi can produce their own nutrients.
____ 2. When a haploid “plus” mating type fungal cell fuses with a haploid “minus” mating type cell, this can
lead to a single cell containing two haploid nuclei called a
A. spore. B. dikaryon. C. fruiting body. D. haploid-diploid. E. fusion product.
____ 3. Green algae such as Ulva demonstrate an alteration of generations. The diploid phase is called the
A. gametophyte generation. B. embryo. C. sporophyte generation. D. diploid generation.
____ 4. In bryophytes, the rhizoids
A. serve as attachment structures. B. obtain nutrients. C. obtain water. D. lure possible prey.
E. are involved in reproduction.
____ 5. The vascular transport tubes of plants are reinforced with
A. cellulose. B. chitin. C. rhizoids. D. mycorrhizae. E. lignin.
____ 6. In gymnosperms, the formation of the female gametophyte takes place in the
A. microspores. B. megaspores. C. macrospores. D. ovule. E. rhizomes.
____ 7. All of the following are parts of a flower except the
A. carpel. B. stamen. C. ovary. D. fruit. E. cuticle.
____ 8. Arrange the following characteristics in order from the earliest to the most recent to evolve.
3. multicellular embryos
4. vascular system
5. alternation of generations
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 B. 3, 2, 4, 5, 1 C. 5, 2, 4, 3, 1 D. 5, 3, 4, 2, 1 E. 3, 5, 4, 2, 1
____ 9. Which of the following is an adaptation to land characteristic of gymnosperms but not ferns?
A. seeds B. spores C. vascular system D. alternation of generations E. flowers
____ 10. Which of the following are adaptations to land of both gymnosperms and angiosperms but are lacking in
ferns and mosses?
A. pollen and seeds B. fruits and flowers C. vascular system D. true roots, stems, and leaves
____ 11. Which of the following plant groups specifically need water for sperm transport?
A. mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants B. mosses, ferns, conifers C. mosses, ferns D. mosses
only E. flowering plants only
Name: ______________________ ID: A
____ 12. Which plant group has a dominant gametophyte generation when compared to the sporophyte
A. flowering plants B. gymnosperms C. ferns D. horsetails E. bryophytes
____ 13. Which of the following is an adaptation to land seen in ferns but not in mosses?
A. vascular system
B. alternation of generations
Text Section:12.3 – plant evolution, adaptation to land
____ 14. The principal criterion used to classify fungi into divisions (the equivalent of phyla) is
A. the pigments found in the hyphal cells. B. the components of their cell walls. C. the
biochemistry of their plasma membranes. D. the morphology of the sexual spore-bearing structures.
E. the pattern of cilia on their external surfaces.
____ 15. Unlike land plants, green algae do not have
A. chlorophyll b. B. carotenoids. C. embryos. D. diploid generations. E. flagellated cells.
____ 16. In algae and plants with a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations, the _____ produces
spores by ______.
A. zygote; meiosis B. gametophyte; mitosis C. gametophyte; meiosis D. sporophyte: mitosis
E. sporophyte; meiosis
____ 17. Which of the following characteristics does the life cycle of the alga Ulva share with the life cycle of
A. male and female gametes that look the same B. male and female gametes produced by mitosis
C. sporophytes and gametophytes that look the same D. diploid spores E. fertilization in the open
____ 18. Plants have adapted to dry land by evolving all of the following except
A. association with mycorrhizae to improve mineral uptake. B. secreting a waxy coating to prevent
water loss. C. forms of chlorophyll more efficient at capturing light. D. tissues to conduct water
through the plant. E. structures to protect reproductive cells and embryos.
____ 19. In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions
A. can take place day or night. B. produce ADP and NADP+. C. are uncoupled from the
light-independent reactions. D. lead to carbon fixation. E. produce ATP and NADPH.
____ 20. Which of the following does not take place during the first of the two phases of photosynthesis?
A. Light energy is absorbed by electrons in the chlorophyll. B. Water is split. C. Atp and electron
carriers are formed. D. Carbon dioxide is fixed. E. Oxygen is released.
____ 21. Choose the process that does not occur during the light-trapping phase of photosynthesis.
A. Water is split. B. ATP is produced. C. NADPH is produced. D. Oxygen is released.
E. Carbon dioxide is fixed.
____ 22. During the Calvin-Benson cycle, in the red Columbine plant, high-energy electrons from NADPH are
transferred into a newly made 3-carbon compound. Eventually these electrons will end up as part of
glucose molecules. What was the original source of these electrons in photosynthesis?
A. NADP+ B. ATP C. oxygen D. water E. carbon dioxide
Name: ______________________ ID: A
____ 23. Which color of light has the least important role in photosynthesis?
A. red B. green C. blue D. orange E. indigo
____ 24. Roots function in all of the following except
A. storage of food. B. production of food. C. anchorage and support of the plant. D. absorption
of water. E. absorption of minerals.
____ 25. The endodermis of a root
A. regulates the transport of water and minerals into the vascular system. B. produces root hairs for
the absorption of water and minerals. C. produces lateral roots in woody dicotyledons. D. transports
starch to parenchyma cells for storage. E. produces starch in the roots of dicotyledons.
____ 26. Which of the following is true regarding primary growth in a plant?
A. Primary growth increases the height of a plant. B. Primary growth results in woody tissue.
C. Primary growth arises from apical meristems. D. All the above are true. E. Only a and c are true.
____ 27. Which of the following statements regarding leaf structure and function is not true?
A. Most photosynthesis takes place in the palisade mesophyll. B. Most stomata are usually found on
the upper epidermis rather than the lower. C. The palisade mesophyll is more densely packed than the
spongy mesophyll. D. A waxy cuticle covers the epidermis of many leaves. E. The epidermis of
many leaves has associated trichomes.
____ 28. Which of the following is mismatched?
A. netted veination – dicotyledons B. vascular bundles distributed throughout the stem –
monocotyledons C. one cotyledon – monocotyledons D. floral parts in multiples of four or five –
dicotyledons E. true secondary growth – monocotyledons
____ 29. Which of the following dicotyledon root tissues/cells are in order from the outside of the root to the
A. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular tissue B. epidermis, cortex, pericycle,
endodermis, vascular tissue C. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, vascular tissue, endodermis D. epidermis,
cortex, endodermis, vascular tissue, pericycle E. epidermis, pericycle, cortex, endodermis, vascular
____ 30. The ancestor to all plants is believed to be
A. a green alga. B. a red alga. C. a brown alga, like kelp. D. a diatom. E. a sea grass.
____ 31. The tip of the stem (the shoot tip) contains the
A. apical meristem. B. lateral meristem. C. intercalary meristem D. lateral buds. E. endodermis.
____ 32. This type of tissue provides the primary support and strength in the shoot system.
A. dermal tissue B. epidermal tissue C. cortical tissue D. parenchyma E. vascular tissue
____ 33. Following fertilization, an ovary will develop into ____________, whereas an ovule will become
A. a. a fruit; a seed B. an embryo; a fruit C. a seed; an embryo D. a female gametophyte; a seed
E. a fruit; a female gametophyte
____ 34. Double fertilization occurs when
A. one sperm unites with an egg and another sperm unites with the central cell of the female
gametophyte. B. two sperm unite with one egg. C. two sperm unite with the central cell. D. one
sperm unites with the egg and another sperm unites with the male gametophyte. E. one sperm unites
with the egg and another sperm unites with a pollen grain.
Name: ______________________ ID: A
____ 35. What part of a plant actually feeds the majority of people on earth?
A. root B. stem C. leaf D. endosperm E. meristem
____ 36. The period following dormancy of a seed is called
A. germination. B. abscission. C. guttation. D. scarification. E. desiccation.
____ 37. Which of the plant growth regulator(s) is actually a gas?
A. phytochrome B. ethylene C. abscisic acid D. cytokinins E. auxins
____ 38. This group of plant growth regulators are typically produced in the apical meristems of shoots, diffusing
downward to the roots.
A. gibberellins B. ethylene C. abscisic acid D. phytochrome E. auxins
____ 39. Water moves up a plant via
A. capillaries. B. phloem. C. xylem. D. stomates. E. panicles.
____ 40. What structure prevents water from moving between cells of the endodermis of the plant root?
A. Casparian strip B. Okazaki fragments C. sclerids D. collenchyma E. sclerenchyma
____ 41. Plants lose water primarily
A. by passing it out of the stomata. B. by evaporation from the surface of the epidermis. C. by
evaporation from the cuticle. D. by loss to the phloem. E. by translocation.
____ 42. What type of chemical bond allows for the unique characteristics of water (cohesion, adhesion, and
A. ionic bonds B. covalent bonds C. hydrogen bonds D. oxide bonds E. James Bond
Match the following trait with the correct adaptive advantage.
A. increases the chances of pollination
B. protection from desiccation
C. decreases predation
D. increases gas exchange
E. allows movement of nutrients and water throughout plant
F. increases chance of wide dispersal of offspring
____ 43. Vascular systems
____ 44. Flowers
____ 45. Seeds and fruits
____ 46. Cuticles
____ 47. Stomata
Match the following characteristics with the correct group of plants.
A. flowering plants
E. pine trees
____ 48. These land plants have a more conspicuous gametophyte than sporophyte generation.
____ 49. These are the first land plants that produced ovules.
____ 50. This group does not generally produce multicellular embryos.
Name: ______________________ ID: A
____ 51. The ovules of these plants are encased in a “vessel.”
____ 52. This group of land plants was the first to evolve xylem and phloem.
Match the following plant structures with the proper taxonomic group.
____ 53. lack secondary growth
____ 54. parallel veins in the leaf, not branching
____ 55. vascular bundles in a ring in the stem
____ 56. two seed leaves formed in the seed
____ 57. a highly branching, shallow fibrous root system
Match the following plant hormones with their appropriate function.
A. This hormone is primarily responsible for the phototropic response.
B. Dwarf plants are deficient in this hormone.
C. This hormone causes leaves to drop and fruits to ripen.
D. This hormone counteracts growth regulators and causes dormancy.
E. This hormone stimulates cell division and the activation of lateral buds.
____ 58. auxin
____ 59. gibberellin
____ 60. cytokinin
____ 61. abscisic acid
____ 62. ethylene
Match the following cells/tissues with the proper chromosome number.
____ 63. a mature flowering plant
____ 64. microspores
____ 65. megaspores
____ 66. endosperm
____ 67. zygote
Match the following terms with the proper description.
A. evaporative water loss via the leaves
B. cells that transport water and dissolved minerals
C. water molecules that stick together by hydrogen bonding
D. water traveling short distances in small tubes
E. water molecules attracted to the cellulose cell walls of xylem cells
____ 68. cohesion
____ 69. capillary action
____ 70. adhesion
____ 71. transpiration
____ 72. xylem